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    A dorsal hump is the medical term to describe the prominent bump on the bridge of the nose. This is the most common reason for dissatisfaction reported by our patients. It is usually most visible from the side and patients complain that it can give their nose a harsh or masculine profile. The appearance of a dorsal hump is due to the shape of the bone and cartilage under the skin and the reasons can be numerous – trauma, surgery or a genetic or “family” shape. A dorsal hump can be effectively treated with nonsurgical techniques which utilizes dermal filler injections to hide the bump and give the nose a softer, straighter, and smoother bridge.



    The tip of the nose can sometimes have a droopy or under-projected appearance. This can be due to an oversized cartilage or a lack of support at the tip. This is a very common concern for patients visiting our clinics, who complain that their nose looks droopy, bottom-heavy and this is often exaggerated when they smile. A drooping tip can be effectively treated using Dr. Adam’s signature technique, which can help to raise the tip, add definition, and help to support the base of the nose so it stays raised, sharp and well-defined even when you smile.



    Asymmetry in the nose can appear because of previous trauma, surgery or simply because of uneven development of the nose cartilages or septum. Patients complain of abnormal and asymmetrical shadows on their nose, which cannot be diminished with makeup. Nose asymmetry and deviation are challenging cases but using advanced nonsurgical techniques, they can be improved to give your nose a straighter appearance, more symmetrical shape and to restore the natural shadows to your nose.



    Some noses are naturally wider and more bulbous, which may be family or ethnic traits that can be considered completely individual and equally beautiful. However, some of our patients do wish for slightly better definition and a sharper contour, whilst retaining the identity and character of their nose. Precise placement of specialized filler is used to create height and definition to the nose bridge and tip. The result is a subtle yet very attractive enhancement to the nose, which looks and photographs beautifully.



    The side profile is a set of component parts, including the forehead, nose, midface, lips, and chin, which all complement and impact each other and contribute to the overall balance. The size and shape of the nose can dominate the side profile, making it look harsh. A gentle bridge and lifted tip can do wonders for the overall balance of the facial profile. Equally, other components of the side profile, such as the chin and lips, can impact on the appearance of the nose. For example, a weak chin can make the nose look disproportionately big or dominant. Treating the chin and nose in combination can be very effective in reducing the prominence of the nose and improving the balance of the facial profile. 


    Hair thinning is a gradual and minor to moderate loss of hair, which can give the appearance of thinner spots or sparsity of hair on your head. Unlike widespread hair loss, however, it doesn’t necessarily lead to baldness. Thinning hair may be caused by lifestyle, genetics, or both. Lifestyle habits are a key contributor to thinning hair. These include over-treating hair with colors, sprays and straighteners or wearing your hair too tightly. Treatments start at home by adjusting your hairstyle and lifestyle! In the clinic, we offer a selection of treatments that will help to reduce hair loss and thinning. 



    A receding hairline can start to develop in men as they age. In many cases, hair loss can be treated with medications and surgery. Although it is possible for women to experience receding hairline, they are more likely to be affected by thinning hair. 

    For men, a receding hairline can start from as young as the early twenties and typically progresses in a predictable pattern. The average person’s scalp has about 100,000 hairs that grow from follicles that are embedded deep within the layers of the scalp. These hairs go through a cycle of dormancy, growth and eventually are shed, only to be replaced by new hairs. If this hair cycle is disturbed by medications, aging, hormones or due to genetic factors, the result can be a receding hairline. A family history of male pattern baldness is a strong risk factor, in fact the timing of hair loss is often similar from one generation to the next. Hormone fluctuations can play a role in hair loss as can certain medications.  



    The face and body are normally covered by a layer of fine hair (peach fuzz). However excessive hair growth in women can occur due to several conditions such as hirsutism and hypertrichosis, which cause coarse dark hair to grow on the face, arms or legs. Hirsutism is estimated to affect 5-10% of women. It can run in families and is more common in certain ethnicities. Patients often present with feelings of self-consciousness and embarrassment. The common causes are Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, hormone imbalances and certain medications. The treatment will depend on the cause of the excessive hair. Hair removal can be achieved through the use of waxing, electrolysis and laser hair removal.



    Eyelashes protect the eyes from light debris. They also act like sensors that warn the eyes of potential danger when objects come close. Sparse or thin eyelashes fall under a condition called eyelash hypotrichosis. People with hair loss, called alopecia, sometimes experience the thinning of eyelashes. Of course, eyelashes are very important for the overall aesthetic of the eyes and face. Eyelash enhancement is extremely popular whether it is by way of makeup or cosmetic treatments. 

    There are many home remedies that purport to enhance the eyelashes – use these with care, as some can cause injury or allergy. The only proven remedy to lengthen your eyelashes is to carefully use medication. Bimatoprost (Latisse) is the only medication that is FDA approved for eyelash enhancement. It is proven to make eyelashes grow longer and thicker. It was originally developed as a medication called Lumigan to treat glaucoma, but researchers found that eyelash growth was a side effect. Your doctor can prescribe Latisse, which you apply regularly to the lash line of the upper eyelid (not the lower eyelid). It delivers full results when used daily for at least two months.



    Hair thinning in the beard can lead to visible patches, which can become a source of embarrassment for the patient and prevent them from wearing any facial hair. Thinning hair may be caused by lifestyle habits, genetics, or both. Lifestyle habits are a key contributor to thinning hair. These include over-treating hair with colors, lotions and oils, or even hair pulling and laser treatments. Treatments start at home by adjusting your hairstyle and lifestyle! In the clinic, we offer a selection of treatments that will help to reduce hair loss and thinning. Mo is our cosmetic pharmacist and is an expert in hair restoration and pharmaceuticals.


    Brow asymmetry or heaviness mostly commonly result from natural aging or unsatisfactory Botox treatment. The patients typically complain of heaviness in the brows, which is worse by the evening. This heaviness can make them look and feel more tired and aged. They may also have difficulty applying their usual makeup. The heavy brows may also trigger a reflex in the forehead muscle to keep the eyebrows lifted, which can in turn cause more tension and wrinkles in the forehead. The treatment options for heavy or asymmetrical eyebrows range from nonsurgical options like Botox and skin tightening, to surgical procedures such as Accutite and brow lifts. This is a challenging area to treat, and it is important to consult an experienced clinician for a careful assessment to diagnose the root of the problem and create an effective treatment strategy. 





    As we age, our skin loses its collagen and elasticity and becomes thinner. The skin of the upper eyelids is the thinnest in the body and so it is typically the first victim of the aging process and the first to show the early signs of aging, such as skin laxity, sagging eyelids and hooding which eliminates the natural creases of the eyes. The patients typically complain of looking tired and being unable to apply their makeup in the normal way. This is a very common problem in women and men and the treatments are relatively straightforward. In the early stages, Botox and skin tightening treatments such as the IPL, threads and opus. 



    The under-eye area is a cause of concern for many people, and it can be affected by a host of different factors, such as weight gain or weight loss, tiredness and stress, illness, dehydration, and hormonal changes. Dark circles under the eyes are a very common concern among women and men. They can make your face look tired, drawn, and unwell. This darkness is usually caused by a combination of different issues, such as skin hollowing, pigmentation and skin thinning and laxity. The tear trough is a natural anatomical groove created by a ligament which is situated under the eye, separating the fat of the eyelid from that of the cheek. This is present in all people, however it can become more visible in certain circumstances, if there is a particularly tight ligament or is volume loss around the area, making the tear trough appear deeper and the shadows more pronounced. This can be effectively treated using specialized dermal fillers that help to reduce the hollowness and soften the dark shadows. Pigmentation of the skin around the eye is extremely common. This can be caused by several factors, including hormones, sun damage, accumulation of fluids and heredity. This is usually treated with medical skincare and plasma (PRP) treatments. Furthermore, the unique ingredients found in some fillers can help with this discoloration. Dark circles around the eyes are multifactorial and usually require a clever combination of treatments and self-help measures to completely eradicate them.



    Crows’ feet have become a familiar term to describe the wrinkles that radiate outwards from the sides of the eye onto the cheeks, particularly with exaggerated expressions and smiling. Wrinkles that appear when smiling can be softened using Botox. This helps to weaken the muscle but not completely paralyze it. The result will be a very natural smile with the eyes smiling as they should, but the skin will maintain its integrity and not crumple and collapse under the movement of the muscle. In cases where the wrinkles have become ingrained into the skin and are deep and visible even when not smiling, then other treatments such as dermal fillers may be required to improve their appearance.



    Loss of volume, asymmetry and aging is a common concern for women and men alike. The midface and cheeks are the natural stores of fat in the face and volume here is what gives our face its natural lift and youthful plumpness. Loss of volume in the cheeks and midface can result from natural aging, weight loss, extreme exercise, or illness. The patient typically sees a loss of volume in their face, which makes them appear gaunt, drawn, aged or ill. The ideal treatment for this concern is to replenish the natural volume in its natural place. This can be done by carefully targeting the natural fat pockets and re-inflating them back to their original volume. This restores the natural shape and volume of the face, making you look fresher, younger, and more rested, and avoids any unnatural or awkward results. This targeted and anatomical approach requires a very intimate understanding of the facial anatomy, which only comes with appropriate training and years of experience.



    Most faces exhibit some degree of asymmetry, and this is typically seen in the cheek and jaw lines areas. It is important to embrace mild facial asymmetries as a natural feature, which adds to the individuality and beauty of the face. However, more obvious asymmetries can be distressing to some people. Correction of moderate asymmetry can be effectively achieved using dermal filler injections, carefully placed to balance the natural landmarks of the face and cheeks. Furthermore, for patients wanting a more prominent highlights to their cheekbones or a more defined contour to their face, similar techniques can be utilized to create shape, highlights and shadows that accentuate the cheekbones and lift the face. This is undoubtedly an artistic endeavor and requires your clinician to be medically trained as well as artistically gifted.



    Aging of the face is a very broad term that encompasses multiple processes that occur simultaneously and contribute to the same overall result. Aging of the face involves degradation of all the structures of the face, from the skin to the fat, ligaments, muscles and even the facial bones.

    In the skin, the aging process means that the natural stores of collagen, elastic and hyaluronic acid are depleted. This leads to dehydration of the skin and loss of its natural plumpness and glow. It also leads to gradual thinning of the skin, and it starts to display the ominous and predictable signs of aging, such as lines, wrinkles and laxity. The fat layer of the face is a fundamental player in the aging process. The facial fat is divided into distinct compartments which are separated by ligaments. This facial fat changes with the aging process. The general trend is a deflation of facial fat, which is typically why we start to see hollowing and shadows appearing under the eyes and around the mouth. However, in certain areas of the face the fat becomes enlarged and heavier, leading to the appearance of jowls, malar fat and eye bags. This is a complex process which is why a careful assessment is always required to tailor an appropriate treatment around you. Areas of the face that have seen a deflation can be effectively treated with reinflation with fillers or fat. Other areas that have become heavier will require treatments that reduce the fat, such as liquid lipo and accent prime. 





    The most common complaint concerning the lower face is that of the appearance of jowls. The jowl is an area in the lower cheek, which typically displays the early signs of aging and weight change. The fat in this area becomes heavier with age and weight gain, and starts to enlarge and weigh down, giving rise to the typical appearance of jowling, aging and squaring of the face shape. Heavy jowls can diminish the sharp contours of the mandible, producing a wavy and poorly defined jawline. The treatment for the jowls depends on the severity of the problem. Mild jowling can be softened with dermal fillers to restore the sharpness of the jawline.



    The masseter is a large chewing muscle situated at the back of the jawline. It can be felt tensing through the skin when you clench your teeth. This muscle, like any other muscle, can become tense and enlarged, due to repeated use, such as chewing gum, or naturally over years of normal chewing action. An overactive masseter muscle can become problematic for the patient, however, as it can lead to teeth grinding, tooth ache and tension headaches. Cosmetically, an enlarged masseter muscle can also create a widened and masculine jawline. This muscle can be effectively treated with Botox injections to calm down its action and reduce its tension. This can result in a resolution of the symptoms of teeth grinding and headaches. Botox into the masseter may also be used for cosmetic purposes to reduce the bulk of the muscle and create a slimmer jawline and more tapered facial shape.





    Lips and lip enhancement need no introduction – they are at the forefront of female cosmetic products and aesthetic treatments. Lips of course come in all shapes and sizes, and they are completely individual. The size, shape and symmetry of the lips can be affected by genetics and development, aging, dehydration and the shape and structure of the teeth. Patients who desire a fuller shape or more definition will be familiar with the concept of lip fillers. These are injectable treatments using hyaluronic acid fillers that are used to improve the volume, plumpness, and definition of the lips. There are many scare-stories regarding lip fillers and plenty of unnatural looking results that might make you very nervous about this treatment. However, we believe that the best lips are the ones that look beautiful, but you don’t notice the filler and can’t decide if they have had treatment or not. This is the kind of result we always strive to achieve within our clinics.



    Your lips can give away a lot about your age and lifestyle. Loss of volume and definition, smokers’ lines and down turning lips that make you look sad are all unwelcome developments and common complaints. Smokers’ lines are the vertical lines that radiate around the lips. Despite their name, they are not necessarily due to smoking. They are the result of weak and thin skin that has lost its collagen and strength, and an overactive lip muscle. Treatment of the aging lips must target the different visible signs. Volume loss is corrected with filler. Lip definition is restored with precise placement of filler into the border of the lips. Down turning lips can also be corrected using a mixture of dermal filler and Botox to relax any tension that is pulling down on the corner of the mouth. Finally, vertical smokers’ lines in the skin around the lip can be softened by a combination of Botox and fillers as well as treatments that will strengthen the collagen in the skin, such as laser resurfacing.



    The appearance of an excessive amount of gum when you smile, is sometimes termed a “gummy smile”. Your perception of your gum line could be affected by the height and shape of your teeth, the way your lips move when you smile, or the angle of your jaw compared with the rest of your face. Generally speaking, over 3 to 4 millimeters of exposed gum line is considered to be disproportionate, resulting in a gummy smile. A gummy smile is extremely common and is a normal variation. However, if a gummy smile is causing a cosmetic concern for you, then this can be helped with a simple injection. Botulinum Toxin (Botox) is used to relax the overactive muscles that raise the lip. This can be highly effective in most patients and the results should last around 3-4 months.





    Often it is difficult to pin down one thing that we dislike and we often don’t know the best place or treatment to start with. Patients often complain of a general dissatisfaction with their side profile, which they may want to appear more feminine and less harsh. This may be due to imbalance of the chin, lips, nose or forehead and one or all may need to be addressed in order to achieve a more harmonious profile. It is a similar story for whole facial balancing when a generalized rejuvenation is desired, to lift your face and make you look generally more rested and fresher. When it comes to facial slimming, this can sometimes be effectively achieved by reducing the bulk of the masseter muscle in the jawline. However, when the problem is that of a round face, which lacks definition then this requires a more sophisticated approach. A combination of dermal fillers strategically placed to create a more heart-shaped face with beautiful contours and a slimmer appearance.

  • ACNE

    Acne is one of the most common skin conditions, affecting males and females at all stages of life. Patients typically complain of oily, inflamed skin with breakouts of spots and cysts on their face and body – typically the back and chest areas. Acne can vary from mild to severe and can have physical, cosmetic and psychological symptoms. Treatments for acne vary from medical grade skincare, to chemical peels, and lasers. Thorough consultation is always advised so that the treatment can be customized according to your skin and requirements.



    Scars are the body’s attempt at healing after surgery, trauma, burns and skin conditions, such as acne. Scars can be raised, red, hard, and itchy when they are immature. With time, however, the collagen is reorganized and the scar begins to mature, appearing flatter, softer, skin-colored and less itchy – this is a mature scar. Sometimes, this natural progression can be disrupted, and an abnormal scar develops, which may be hypertrophic (lumpy and stretched) or keloid (large, unsightly and extending beyond the size of the original scar). 



    Hyperpigmentation is a condition that affects the skin causing it to appear darker. It can occur in small patches or affect larger areas of the face and body. There are several types of hyperpigmentation, the common ones being melasma, sunspots, and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. The biggest risk factors for general hyperpigmentation are sun exposure and inflammation, as both situations can increase melanin production. 



    Rosacea is a chronic skin condition whose trademark symptom is small, red, pus-filled bumps on the skin that are present during flare-ups. Typically, rosacea affects only skin on your nose, cheeks, and forehead. The cause of rosacea is still unknown, and there is no cure. However, specialist assessment and targeted treatments can help to minimize symptoms. Flare-ups often occur in cycles. Patients will experience symptoms for weeks or months at a time, the symptoms may go away, and then return. There are different types of rosacea, each with its own set of symptoms – one of our specialists will help you understand your condition, and how to prevent and control it.



    Pores are small openings in the skin that release oils and sweat. They’re also connected to your hair follicles. If your pores appear larger, it may be because of acne, naturally oily skin, sun damage and certain types of makeup. Although you can’t change the size of your pores, there are certain skincare regimens, products and treatments that will help to reduce the appearance of enlarged pores. 



    Your skin is your largest organ and is constantly subjected to trauma, sun and chemicals. No wonder, then, that it can sometimes lose its vibrancy and look a little under the weather. Your skin may appear dull and tired due to a number of factors, such as sun exposure, accumulated damage and dead cells on the surface, smoking, dehydration and aging. There are many easy strategies that you can adopt in order to restore the glow and vibrancy to your skin. Sun protection is vital with a good sunscreen that you should wear at all times, even on cloudy days. Hydrafacial, and PRP-plasma treatments will resurface your skin and provide it with a much-needed boost of collagen and growth factors. Hyaluronic Acid is a key component of skin health and this becomes depleted with age. Replenishing Hyaluronic Acid in the skin with Profhilo and other Skin Boosters will help to revive its glow and hydration.



    Wrinkles and fine lines are symptoms of the aging process or accumulated skin damage due to sun or smoking. Wrinkles may be considered as either static or dynamic. Static wrinkles are those that are visible all the time – fine lines around the eyes and forehead or deeper lines in the cheeks or frown areas. Deeper lines are treated with Hyaluronic Acid fillers. Dynamic lines are those that become visible when you pull an expression, such as crows feet or smile lines. These wrinkles are best treated by relaxing those over-expressive muscles in your face and neck. This is typically done using directed botox injections, leaving your skin looking smoother and younger-looking.



    General aging of the skin is a vague but very common complaint from patients. It can describe the gradual decline in the texture, glow, volume and smoothness. These are all very predictable and safely all-too-familiar signs of the aging process which sooner or later starts to catch up with us. Treatment of the aging skin involves a careful assessment of the different signs and symptoms. Then a customized skin plan can be made to treat, reverse and prevent the decline in your skin. 



    The texture of your skin is extremely important as it can not only affect the way your skin feels, but also the way that it looks too. The texture of your skin may be affected by a number of factors, such as sun exposure, accumulated damage and dead cells on the surface, smoking, dehydration and aging. There are many easy strategies that you can adopt in order to restore the glow and vibrancy to your skin. 


    Your body has two types of fat: subcutaneous fat, which is under the skin, and visceral fat, which surrounds the organs inside our body. The amount of subcutaneous fat you develop depends on genetics as well as lifestyle factors such as physical activity and diet. Subcutaneous fat plays several important functions, such as keeping warm and acting as a store of energy. However, too much fat can have health and cosmetic implications. The most common complaints we hear are concerning “stubborn” pockets of fat that do not seem to diminish, despite exercise and dieting. The typically troublesome areas of fat are the double chin, arms, the lower abdomen and thighs. In men, a common complaint is fat excess around the chest area, which may be related to Gynaecomastia. Fat excess can be reduced with nonsurgical fat dissolving injections. We use accent prime and liquid lipo.



    Hyperhidrosis is a common condition that results in excessive sweating in both women and men. This sweating can occur in unusual situations, such as in cooler weather, or without any trigger at all. It can also be caused by other medical conditions, such as menopause or hyperthyroidism.
    Patients complain of excessive sweating, typically from the palms of the hands, underarms, feet and the face. The severity of sweating can be debilitating and embarrassing, sometimes necessitating several changes of clothes in a day and affecting sufferers’ social interaction, such as shaking hands. Treatments include specialized anti-perspirants, iontophoresis energy devices, Botox and surgery. Botox injections work by blocking the sweating mechanism in the skin. Botox treatment involves injections in the affected area and can be very effective at reducing excessive treatment.



    Stretch marks are visible, parallel bands or lines in the skin. Stretch marks can be considered as scars that are within the dermis of the skin. They are caused by stretching of the skin during the rapid growth phase of puberty. They can also develop due to pregnancy, bodybuilding and obesity. Stretch marks may appear as thin and flat or widened and indented in the skin. Stretch marks, just like other scars in the skin, go through a natural maturation cycle. Initially they can be quite prominent and unsightly, having a bright red or purple color. Typically they will mature and their color turns to a pale skin tone. Patients typically present with visible stretch marks on their abdomen, thighs and arms, which can be a source of embarrassment. There are plenty of purported home remedies for stretch marks and whilst being harmless, the results are quite limited. While it is impossible to completely vanish stretch marks, treatments are aimed at reducing their appearance and making them less prominent in color or texture. Tretinoin is a medical cream that can help to restore the collagen within the skin and improve elasticity. Lasers can be used to reduce the redness and discoloration of stretch marks. Microneedling is very effective at delivering the treatment deep into the skin where it is needed and stimulating repair and collagen formation.



    Cellulite is the appearance of uneven, cobbled skin due to an abnormality in the fat and tissues under the skin. It is much more common in women due to the composition of their body fat. Some women are more predisposed to it than others. People of all body types and weights can get cellulite.
    The distribution of fat in women is more visible than in men. The collagen fibers between the skin and muscle separate the underlying fat into multiple pockets. Cellulite can become more visible as you age and your skin becomes thinner and loses elasticity. This exposes the rippled connective tissues underneath. The risk of developing cellulite is increased due to genetics, hormones, diet, inactivity and pregnancy. Home treatments for cellulite include massage, body brushes and caffeine creams. These may help however the results do not last. We use Accent Prime to help with cellulite as well as liquid lipo. 



    Whilst most treatments focus on anti-ageing of the face, the hands are arguably the most visible give-away sign of aging. Patients commonly complain about the appearance of their hands because of the thinning skin, visible tendons and veins and sun spots on the skin. These are typical and predictable signs of aging and can be treated using nonsurgical methods to restore their smooth and youthful shape. Dermal fillers are used to restore the volume and smoothen the grooves and “guttering” pattern that develops between the tendons as well as IPL and collagen washes. 



    Your skin is the largest organ in the body and it is under constant attack from the sun, extremes of temperature, radiation and chemicals. Over time, your skin’s ability to heal itself begins to diminish and so we start to lose the essential components that maintain our youthful skin. Collagen and elastic are the most important proteins that give our skin its natural elasticity and strength. Youthful skin is smooth and tight due to the tight meshwork of collagen and elastin. As these proteins diminish with age, our skin starts to become thinner and more lax. This can result in the development of lines and wrinkles. Furthermore, loose skin begins to gather in certain areas of the face, under the influence of gravity. The jowls, double chin and eye bags are the typical areas to notice these aging signs.



    Pregnancy is a wonderful experience for many women however it can be a traumatic time for your face and body and it can take its toll on your body. Pregnancy is associated with huge fluctuations in the body weight as well as changes in  hormones, water levels and cellular behavior. Post-pregnancy changes are seen in all parts of the body. The most common complaints that we hear regarding post-pregnancy changes in the body are – abdominal skin laxity and stretchmarks. Treatment options include breast augmentation, uplift and fat transfer. In the face, post-pregnancy changes normally show in the midface area, which can start to look hollow and flat, giving rise to a more tired appearance. Volume replenishment in the face, using dermal fillers, can restore the natural apple of the cheek and lift the face, making you look more refreshed and rested.


    Excessive breast tissue occurs in about 20% of males and can be completely normal, especially at certain stages of life, such as childhood, puberty and old age, when hormone imbalances can occur. Gynaecomastia can also occur as a side effect to certain medication or recreational drugs. It is also always important to check other conditions in the body that may manifest with gynaecomastia, such as liver, thyroid or testicular problems. Gynaecomastia can cause significant physical and psychological morbidity for the patient and may affect confidence, self-esteem and social development.The treatments for gynaecomastia include liquid lipo. 



    Acne is one of the most common skin conditions, affecting males and females at all stages of life. Patients typically complain of oily, inflamed skin with breakouts of spots and cysts on their face and body – typically the back and chest areas. Acne can vary from mild to severe and can have physical, cosmetic and psychological symptoms. Treatments for acne vary from medical grade skincare, to chemical peels, and lasers.



    Scars are the body’s attempt at healing after surgery, trauma, burns and skin conditions, such as acne. Scars can be raised, red, hard and itchy when they are immature. With time, however, the collagen is reorganized and the scar begins to mature, appearing flatter, softer, skin-colored and less itchy – this is a mature scar. Sometimes, this natural progression can be disrupted and an abnormal scar develops, which may be hypertrophic (lumpy and stretched) or keloid (large, unsightly and extending beyond the size of the original scar). Treatment of scars is challenging and requires a specialist and multidisciplinary approach. Treatment options include microneedling, and injections with steroids.

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